 15 Nov 2022
 7 Minutes to read

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Formula functions
 Updated on 15 Nov 2022
 7 Minutes to read

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The following article is also applicable to SAP Build Apps. Click here to return to the help portal.
Introduction
Formula functions, or simply, Formulas, are expressions that allow you to build algorithms in your app. They follow the same concept as the Excel "spreadsheet" formulas, and borrow the contextaware functionality from them.
With formulas, you can perform any transformation with relevant data such as the device and system info, GPS location, sensor values, data properties and the application state. For instance: calculate a distance between two coordinates, convert date field to a local format, predict future values based on historical data, calculate interest rates on a mortgage, confirm the total price when checking out a shopping cart, and many more.
Formulas are one of the component binding types, meaning that you can use formulas almost anywhere in the app. To bind a 'Text' component value to a formula, press the binding icon on the Properties tab and choose "Formula" as the desired binding type.
Using formula functions
Upon choosing "Formula" as the binding type, you will be presented with the formula preview in the raw format, and a field for the preview value on the view canvas. Click on the first field below "Formula" to open the formula editor.
As was mentioned before, formulas are context aware, meaning that they can dynamically output results of their expression. Under 'Example results' you can see the output of the formula. Every expression is additionally validated, eliminating possible errors and alerting you beforehand, if the formula is wrong. On the screenshot below, you can see an app variable with a value of 123 added with an integer 1, producing 124 as a result.
Formula operators
Arithmetic operators +
, 
, *
, and /
Logical operators 
, &&
and !
Comparisons ==
, ===
, !=
, !==
, <
, <=
, >
and >=
Remainders %
Conditionals <condition> ? <true value> : <false value>
Escape character: \
To escape the backslash in JavaScript, use two backslashes: \\
Formula types
There two types of formulas: static (Variables) and dynamic (Functions). Static ones are used to interact with static data, ranging from preset app variables to system variables fetched from the device. Functions, on the other hand, allow the execution of complex actions and dynamic generation of output based on provided input.
Below you will find an introduction for each Formula subtype along with usage examples.
Variables
App Variables
 Purpose
Read/Modify App Variables.
 Usage (Substitute
{name}
with an appropriate name.)
appVars.{name}
 Example
IF(IS_EQUAL(appVars.appVariableOne, true), "Variable 1 is true", "Variable 1 is false")
Explanation:
IF
function creates an IFstatement that checks if the App Variable "appVariableOne" is equal to "true" via the IS_EQUAL
function. In case, it is "true", then the formula outputs the first string. If it is "false", then the second one is outputted.
Data Variables
 Purpose
Read/Modifty Data Variables.
 Usage
data.{name}
 Example
IS_EMAIL(data.usersList[0].email)
Explanation:
Data variable usersList has a field called email. By using the IS_EMAIL
function, we are able to verify, whether or not the email entry of that data variable is a valid email address. A "true" output indicates that that the entry is indeed an email.
Page Parameters
 Purpose
Read/Modify Page Parameters.
 Usage
params.{name}
 Example
CAPITALIZE(params.pageParameterOne)
Explanation:
By using the CAPITALIZE
function, we are able to capitalize every word in the page parameter pageParameterOne
.
Page variables
 Purpose
Read/Modify Page Variables.
 Usage
pageVars.{name}
 Example
LENGTH(pageVars.pageVariableOne)
Explanation:
The LENGTH
function returns the number of characters in the page variable pageVariableOne
.
Selected component properties
 Purpose
Interact (Read/Modify) with component's properties.
 Usage
self.{property}
 Example
IF(IS_EQUAL(self.visible, true), "Component is visible", "Component is not visible")
Explanation:
By using the IF
and IS_EQUAL
functions, we verify if a component is visible. If the formula determines that the component is visible, it will return "Component is visible". Otherwise, "Component is not visible" will be the output.
Sensor variables
 Purpose
Interact with data gathered by device sensors, i.e accelerometer.
 Usage
sensorVars.{name}
 Example
ROUND(sensorVars.accelerometer.latestValue.x + sensorVars.accelerometer.latestValue.y)
Explanation:
sensorVars.accelerometer.latestValue.
x
provides the value for acceleration along the X axis, while sensorVars.accelerometer.latestValue.
y
gives the Y axis. By using the mathematical expression + (plus) we are finding their sum. The ROUND
function will round the result to the first decimal.
System variables
 Purpose
Interact with the device's system data, i.e active browser or phone model.
 Usage
systemVars.{name}
 Example
"You are using " + systemVars.browser.browserCodeName + " browser."
Explanation:
By using the plus sign (+), we are able to use device's browser name in a sentence. It will appear differently depending on the user.
Theme variables
 Purpose
Interact with the application's theme variables.
 Usage
theme.${name}
 Example
COLOR(theme.$smartColorPalette_app.negative)
Explanation:
theme.$smartColorPalette_app.negative
gets the current 'negative' color preset in HEX format. The COLOR
function converts it into an RGB color.
Functions
Bitwise
A bitwise formula function operates on a number at the level of its individual bits.

BIT_NOT(10)
= 11
Performs logical negation on each bit, forming the complement of the given number. 
BIT_AND(14, 9)
= 8
Binary operation that takes two numeral representations and performs the logical AND operation on each pair of the corresponding bits. 
BIT_OR(14, 9)
= 15
Performs the logical inclusive OR operation on each pair of corresponding bits. 
BIT_XOR(14, 9)
= 7
Performs the logical exclusive OR operation on each pair of corresponding bits. 
BIT_SHIFT_{direction}(number, shift)
In a left shift, binary zeros are shifted in on the right; in a right arithmetic shift, the sign bit is shifted in on the left,
Color
Collection of functions that work with colors. Refer to reference pages for more details.
 Examples
RGB(0, 128, 250)
You can use the RGB
function to generate 16777216 possible colors using the Red, Green and Blue color system.
SATURATE("rgb(0, 128, 250)", 50)
Saturates (increases intensity and clearness) a color by provided percentage. Takes color in RGB or HEX as input.
Date
Enables interaction with dates and time. Refer to reference pages for more details.
 Examples
NOW()
Returns current date and time in YYYYMMDD HH:MM:SS format.
FORMAT_DATETIME_LOCAL(NOW(), "DDMMYY HH:MM")
Formats the date time into humanfriendly format. Gives posibility to omit unnecessary fields and change the order in a desired way.
Engineering
Collection of engineering functions. Currently contains only variations of the Bessel function. Refer to reference pages for more details.
 Bessel function
A set of mathematical functions systematically derived by the German astronomer Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel during an investigation of solutions of one of Keplerâ€™s equations of planetary motion. Bessel equation:
Financial
Perform various financial manipulations. Refer to reference pages for more details.
 Example
FUTURE_VALUE(0.5, 12, 1000)
Calculates an annuity investment's future value, where 0.5 is the interest rate, 12 the number of payments, and 1000 the contribution amount per period.
List
Perform operations with lists. Refer to reference pages for more details.
 Example
COUNT(data.usersList)
Returns a number of items in a given list. In this case, a data variable is the list.
Math
Library of mathematical expressions and methods. Refer to reference pages for more details.
 Examples
FACTORIAL(6)
Calculates a factorial of the provided number.
RANDOM_INTEGER_BETWEEN(1,100)
Randomizes a number between provided integers,
Object
Represents available JavaScript Object methods. Refer to reference pages for more details.
 Examples
LOOKUP(appVars.object, "name")
Reads the value of the "name" property of Object appVars.object
.
SET_KEY(appVars.object, "name", "John")
Sets the "name" parameter's value to "John". Overrides the previous value.
Statistical
List of operations used in statistical mathematics. Refer to reference pages for more details.
 Examples
PERMUTATIONA(5, 3)
Returns a number of permutations (
COMBINA(5, 3)
Returns a number of combinations (
Text
Textbased operations. Refer to reference pages for more details.
 Examples
APPEND_URL_PARAMETERS("https://appgyver.com/", { href: "#" })
Appends the given URL parameter (href: "#"
) to the URL text (https://appgyver.com/
)
REPLACE_ONE_REGEX("AppGyver Documentation 20:00 @ 01.01.2022", "[azAZ]+" , "SAP AppGyver")
Uses a Regex expression to substitute a text/numerical string. Use a Regex generator in case you are unfamiliar with the pattern language.
Utility
Selection of various programming utility functions, for instance IFStatements or Base64 encoders. Refer to reference pages for more details.
 Examples
ENCODE_BASE64("Hello world!")
Encodes the provided text string into Base64.
FILENAME_IS_IMAGE("cat.svg")
Checks if the given text has a file extension that belongs to an image.
Cryptography
Cryptography uses mathematical techniques to transform data and prevent it from being read or tampered with by unauthorized parties. That enables exchanging secure messages even in the presence of adversaries^{1}.
 Examples
RIPEMD160("My secret password")
Calculates the RIPEMD160 hash of the provided text. The return value is a 160bit hash encoded as a text with 40 hexadecimal digits.
SHA256("Hello world")
Calculates the SHA256 hash of the provided text. The return value is a 256bit hash encoded as a text with 64 hexadecimal digits.